Webster JP, Molyneux DH, Hotez PJ, Fenwick A. The contribution of mass drug administration to global health: past, present and future. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2014;369:20130434.
Hotez PJ, Fenwick A, Savioli L, Molyneux DH. Rescuing the bottom billion through control of neglected tropical diseases. Lancet. 2009;373:1570–5.
Gatimu SM, Kimani RW. Does mass drug administration of azithromycin reduce child mortality? Lancet Glob Health. 2021;9:e1485–6.
Oldenburg CE, Arzika AM, Amza A, Gebre T, Kalua K, Mrango Z, et al. Mass azithromycin distribution to prevent childhood mortality: a pooled analysis of cluster-randomized trials. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2019;100:691–5.
Bogoch II, Utzinger J, Lo NC, Andrews JR. Antibacterial mass drug administration for child mortality reduction: opportunities, concerns, and possible next steps. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2019;13: e0007315.
Tavul L, Laman M, Howard C, Kotty B, Samuel A, Bjerum C, et al. Safety and efficacy of mass drug administration with a single-dose triple-drug regimen of albendazole + diethylcarbamazine + ivermectin for lymphatic filariasis in Papua New Guinea: an open-label, cluster-randomised trial. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2022;16: e0010096.
Jambulingam P, Subramanian S, Krishnamoorthy K, Supali T, Fischer P, Dubray C, et al. Country reports on practical aspects of conducting large-scale community studies of the tolerability of mass drug administration with ivermectin/diethylcarbamazine/albendazole for lymphatic filariasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2022;tpmd210898.
Orive G, Lertxundi U. Mass drug administration: time to consider drug pollution? Lancet. 2020;395:1112–3.
Smits HL. Prospects for the control of neglected tropical diseases by mass drug administration. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2009;7:37–56.
Verlicchi P, Al Aukidy M, Zambello E. What have we learned from worldwide experiences on the management and treatment of hospital effluent?—an overview and a discussion on perspectives. Sci Total Environ. 2015;514:467–91.
Grenni P, Ancona V, Barra CA. Ecological effects of antibiotics on natural ecosystems: a review. Microchem J. 2018;136:25–39.
Lipsitch M, Samore MH. Antimicrobial use and antimicrobial resistance: a population perspective. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002;8:347–54.
Littmann J, Viens AM, Silva DS. The Super-Wicked Problem of Antimicrobial Resistance. In: Jamrozik E, Selgelid M, editors. Ethics and drug resistance: collective responsibility for global public health. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2020; p. 421–43. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-27874-8_26.
O’Neill J. Tackling drug-resistant infections globally: final report and recommendations. Review on Antimicrobial Resistance. London, UK; 2016 May p. 80. Available from: https://amr-review.org/sites/default/files/160525_Final%20paper_with%20cover.pdf.
Baquero F, Martínez J-L, Cantón R. Antibiotics and antibiotic resistance in water environments. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2008;19:260–5.
Wellington EM, Boxall AB, Cross P, Feil EJ, Gaze WH, Hawkey PM, et al. The role of the natural environment in the emergence of antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative bacteria. Lancet Infect Dis. 2013;13:155–65.
Bürgmann H, Frigon D, H Gaze W, M Manaia C, Pruden A, Singer AC, et al. Water and sanitation: an essential battlefront in the war on antimicrobial resistance. FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2018;94.
Schachter J, West SK, Mabey D, Dawson CR, Bobo L, Bailey R, et al. Azithromycin in control of trachoma. Lancet. 1999;354:630–5.
Mitjà O, Houinei W, Moses P, Kapa A, Paru R, Hays R, et al. Mass treatment with single-dose azithromycin for yaws. N Engl J Med. 2015;372:703–10.
Marks M, Vahi V, Sokana O, Chi K-H, Puiahi E, Kilua G, et al. Impact of community mass treatment with azithromycin for trachoma elimination on the prevalence of yaws. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2015;9: e0003988.
Skalet AH, Cevallos V, Ayele B, Gebre T, Zhou Z, Jorgensen JH, et al. Antibiotic selection pressure and macrolide resistance in nasopharyngeal Streptococcus pneumoniae: a cluster-randomized clinical trial. PLoS Med. 2010;7: e1000377.
Leach AJ, Shelby-James TM, Mayo M, Gratten M, Laming AC, Currie BJ, et al. A prospective study of the impact of community-based azithromycin treatment of trachoma on carriage and resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Clin Infect Dis. 1997;24:356–62.
Seidman JC, Coles CL, Silbergeld EK, Levens J, Mkocha H, Johnson LB, et al. Increased carriage of macrolide-resistant fecal E. coli following mass distribution of azithromycin for trachoma control. Int J Epidemiol. 2014;43:1105–13.
Seidman JC, Johnson LB, Levens J, Mkocha H, Muñoz B, Silbergeld EK, et al. Longitudinal comparison of antibiotic resistance in diarrheagenic and non-pathogenic escherichia coli from young Tanzanian children. Front Microbiol. 2016;7:1420.
O’Brien KS, Emerson P, Hooper PJ, Reingold AL, Dennis EG, Keenan JD, et al. Antimicrobial resistance following mass azithromycin distribution for trachoma: a systematic review. Lancet Infect Dis. 2019;19:e14-25.
Doan T, Arzika AM, Hinterwirth A, Maliki R, Zhong L, Cummings S, et al. Macrolide resistance in MORDOR I—a cluster-randomized trial in niger. N Engl J Med. 2019;380:2271–3.
Doan T, Worden L, Hinterwirth A, Arzika AM, Maliki R, Abdou A, et al. Macrolide and nonmacrolide resistance with mass azithromycin distribution. N Engl J Med. 2020;383:1941–50.
Baker-Austin C, Wright MS, Stepanauskas R, McArthur JV. Co-selection of antibiotic and metal resistance. Trends Microbiol. 2006;14:176–82.
Evans JR, Solomon AW, Kumar R, Perez Á, Singh BP, Srivastava RM, et al. Antibiotics for trachoma. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019;9(9):CD001860.
Poddighe D. Macrolide resistance and longer-term assessment of azithromycin in MORDOR I. N Engl J Med. 2019;381:2184.
Olveda DU, McManus DP, Ross AGP. Mass drug administration and the global control of schistosomiasis: successes, limitations and clinical outcomes. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2016;29:595–608.
Vercruysse J, Levecke B, Prichard R. Human soil-transmitted helminths: implications of mass drug administration. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2012;25:703–8.
Fissiha W, Kinde MZ. Anthelmintic resistance and its mechanism: a review. Infect Drug Resist. 2021;14:5403–10.
Moser W, Schindler C, Keiser J. Efficacy of recommended drugs against soil transmitted helminths: systematic review and network meta-analysis. BMJ. 2017;358: j4307.
Wolstenholme AJ, Fairweather I, Prichard R, von Samson-Himmelstjerna G, Sangster NC. Drug resistance in veterinary helminths. Trends Parasitol. 2004;20:469–76.
Ashley EA, Dhorda M, Fairhurst RM, Amaratunga C, Lim P, Suon S, et al. Spread of artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum malaria. N Engl J Med. 2014;371:411–23.
von Seidlein L, Greenwood BM. Mass administrations of antimalarial drugs. Trends Parasitol. 2003;19:452–60.
World Health Organization. Consideration of mass drug administration for the containment of artemisinin-resistant malaria in the Greater Mekong subregion: report of a consensus meeting, 27–28 September 2010, Geneva, Switzerland [Internet]. World Health Organization; 2011 p. 40. Available from: https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/44605.
White NJ. Does antimalarial mass drug administration increase or decrease the risk of resistance? Lancet Infect Dis. 2017;17:e15-20.
Zuber JA, Takala-Harrison S. Multidrug-resistant malaria and the impact of mass drug administration. Infect Drug Resist. 2018;11:299–306.
Eisele TP. Mass drug administration can be a valuable addition to the malaria elimination toolbox. Malar J. 2019;18:281.
Karanika S, Karantanos T, Arvanitis M, Grigoras C, Mylonakis E. Fecal colonization with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing enterobacteriaceae and risk factors among healthy individuals: a systematic review and metaanalysis. Clin Infect Dis. 2016;63:310–8.
Berendes D, Knee J, Sumner T, Capone D, Lai A, Wood A, et al. Gut carriage of antimicrobial resistance genes among young children in urban Maputo, Mozambique: associations with enteric pathogen carriage and environmental risk factors. PLoS ONE. 2019;14: e0225464.
Robb K, Null C, Teunis P, Yakubu H, Armah G, Moe CL. Assessment of fecal exposure pathways in low-income urban neighborhoods in Accra, Ghana: rationale, design, methods, and key findings of the SaniPath study. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2017;97:1020–32.
Torres NF, Chibi B, Kuupiel D, Solomon VP, Mashamba-Thompson TP, Middleton LE. The use of non-prescribed antibiotics; prevalence estimates in low-and-middle-income countries. A systematic review and meta-analysis. Arch Public Health. 2021;79:2.
Fletcher S. Understanding the contribution of environmental factors in the spread of antimicrobial resistance. Environ Health Prev Med. 2015;20:243–52.
Holmes AH, Moore LSP, Sundsfjord A, Steinbakk M, Regmi S, Karkey A, et al. Understanding the mechanisms and drivers of antimicrobial resistance. Lancet. 2016;387:176–87.
Laxminarayan R, Duse A, Wattal C, Zaidi AKM, Wertheim HFL, Sumpradit N, et al. Antibiotic resistance-the need for global solutions. Lancet Infect Dis. 2013;13:1057–98.
Zainab SM, Junaid M, Xu N, Malik RN. Antibiotics and antibiotic resistant genes (ARGs) in groundwater: a global review on dissemination, sources, interactions, environmental and human health risks. Water Res. 2020;187: 116455.
Rizzo L, Manaia C, Merlin C, Schwartz T, Dagot C, Ploy MC, et al. Urban wastewater treatment plants as hotspots for antibiotic resistant bacteria and genes spread into the environment: a review. Sci Total Environ. 2013;447:345–60.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Antibiotic resistance threats in the United States 2013. [Internet]. US Department of Health and Human Services; 2013 [cited 2022 Jan 10]. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/drugresistance/pdf/ar-threats-2013-508.pdf.
World Health Organization E. Global priority list of antibiotic-resistant bacteria to guide research, discovery, and development of new antibiotics. [Internet]. World Health Organization; [cited 2022 Jan 10]. Available from: https://www.who.int/medicines/publications/WHO-PPL-Short_Summary_25Feb-ET_NM_WHO.pdf.
Murray CJ, Ikuta KS, Sharara F, Swetschinski L, Robles Aguilar G, Gray A, et al. Global burden of bacterial antimicrobial resistance in 2019: a systematic analysis. Lancet. 2022;399(10325):629–55.
Berendes D, Kirby A, Brown J, Wester AL. Human faeces-associated extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli discharge into sanitation systems in 2015 and 2030: a global and regional analysis. Lancet Planet Health. 2020;4:e246–55.
Luke DR, Foulds G. Disposition of oral azithromycin in humans. Clin Pharmacol Therap. 1997;61:641–8.
Marriner SE, Morris DL, Dickson B, Bogan JA. Pharmacokinetics of albendazole in man. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1986;30:705–8.
Navaratnam V, Mansor SM, Sit NW, Grace J, Li Q, Olliaro P. Pharmacokinetics of artemisinin-type compounds. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2000;39:255–70.
González Canga A, Sahagún Prieto AM, Diez Liébana MJ, Fernández Martínez N, Sierra Vega M, García Vieitez JJ. The pharmacokinetics and interactions of ivermectin in humans—a mini-review. AAPS J. 2008;10:42–6.
Patzschke K, Pütter J, Wegner LA, Horster FA, Diekmann HW. Serum concentrations and renal excretion in humans after oral administration of praziquantel–results of three determination methods. Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 1979;4:149–56.
Singer AC, Shaw H, Rhodes V, Hart A. Review of antimicrobial resistance in the environment and its relevance to environmental regulators. Front Microbiol. 2016;7:1728.
Chen C-E, Zhang H, Ying G-G, Zhou L-J, Jones KC. Passive sampling: a cost-effective method for understanding antibiotic fate, behaviour and impact. Environ Int. 2015;85:284–91.
Li B, Zhang T. Biodegradation and adsorption of antibiotics in the activated sludge process. Environ Sci Technol. 2010;44:3468–73.
Ahmed MB, Zhou JL, Ngo HH, Guo W. Adsorptive removal of antibiotics from water and wastewater: progress and challenges. Sci Total Environ. 2015;532:112–26.
Luo Y, Guo W, Ngo HH, Nghiem LD, Hai FI, Zhang J, et al. A review on the occurrence of micropollutants in the aquatic environment and their fate and removal during wastewater treatment. Sci Total Environ. 2014;473–474:619–41.
Rivera-Utrilla J, Sánchez-Polo M, Ferro-García MÁ, Prados-Joya G, Ocampo-Pérez R. Pharmaceuticals as emerging contaminants and their removal from water. A review. Chemosphere. 2013;93:1268–87.
Barrios RE, Khuntia HK, Bartelt-Hunt SL, Gilley JE, Schmidt AM, Snow DD, et al. Fate and transport of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes in runoff and soil as affected by the timing of swine manure slurry application. Sci Total Environ. 2020;712: 136505.
Montealegre MC, Roy S, Böni F, Hossain MI, Navab-Daneshmand T, Caduff L, et al. Risk factors for detection, survival, and growth of antibiotic-resistant and pathogenic Escherichia coli in household soils in rural Bangladesh. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2018;84:e01978-e2018.
Berendes DM, Yang PJ, Lai A, Hu D, Brown J. Estimation of global recoverable human and animal faecal biomass. Nat Sustain. 2018;1:679–85.
Capone D, Berendes D, Cumming O, Holcomb D, Knee J, Konstantinidis KT, et al. Impact of an urban sanitation intervention on enteric pathogen detection in soils. Environ Sci Technol. 2021;55:9989–10000.
Berendes DM, Sumner TA, Brown JM. Safely managed sanitation for all means fecal sludge management for at least 1.8 billion oeople in Low- and Middle-Income Countries. Environ Sci Technol. 2017;51:3074–83.
Oh S, Buddenborg S, Yoder-Himes DR, Tiedje JM, Konstantinidis KT. Genomic diversity of Escherichia isolates from diverse habitats. PLoS ONE. 2012;7: e47005.
Koutsoumanis K, Allende A, Álvarez-Ordóñez A, Bolton D, Bover-Cid S, Chemaly M, et al. Role played by the environment in the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) through the food chain. EFSA J. 2021;19: e06651.
Klümper U, Riber L, Dechesne A, Sannazzarro A, Hansen LH, Sørensen SJ, et al. Broad host range plasmids can invade an unexpectedly diverse fraction of a soil bacterial community. ISME J. 2015;9:934–45.
Maeusli M, Lee B, Miller S, Reyna Z, Lu P, Yan J, et al. Horizontal gene transfer of antibiotic resistance from Acinetobacter baylyi to Escherichia coli on lettuce and subsequent antibiotic resistance transmission to the gut microbiome. MSphere. 2020;5:e00329-e420.
Agga GE, Cook KL, Netthisinghe AMP, Gilfillen RA, Woosley PB, Sistani KR. Persistence of antibiotic resistance genes in beef cattle backgrounding environment over two years after cessation of operation. PLoS ONE. 2019;14: e0212510.
Proia L, von Schiller D, Sànchez-Melsió A, Sabater S, Borrego CM, Rodríguez-Mozaz S, et al. Occurrence and persistence of antibiotic resistance genes in river biofilms after wastewater inputs in small rivers. Environ Pollut. 2016;210:121–8.
Ma L, Li B, Jiang X-T, Wang Y-L, Xia Y, Li A-D, et al. Catalogue of antibiotic resistome and host-tracking in drinking water deciphered by a large scale survey. Microbiome. 2017;5:154.
San Millan A, MacLean RC. Fitness costs of plasmids: A limit to plasmid transmission. Microbiol Spectr. 2017;5.
Gullberg E, Cao S, Berg OG, Ilbäck C, Sandegren L, Hughes D, et al. Selection of resistant bacteria at very low antibiotic concentrations. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7: e1002158.
Westhoff S, van Leeuwe TM, Qachach O, Zhang Z, van Wezel GP, Rozen DE. The evolution of no-cost resistance at sub-MIC concentrations of streptomycin in Streptomyces coelicolor. ISME J. 2017;11:1168–78.
Mathur S, Jackson C, Urus H, Ziarko I, Goodbun M, Hsia Y, et al. A comparison of five paediatric dosing guidelines for antibiotics. Bull World Health Organ. 2020;98:406-412F.
Manyi-Loh C, Mamphweli S, Meyer E, Okoh A. Antibiotic use in agriculture and its consequential resistance in environmental sources: Potential public health implications. Molecules. 2018;23:795.
Kemper N. Veterinary antibiotics in the aquatic and terrestrial environment. Ecol Indic. 2008;1:1–13.
Hanna N, Sun P, Sun Q, Li X, Yang X, Ji X, et al. Presence of antibiotic residues in various environmental compartments of Shandong province in eastern China: Its potential for resistance development and ecological and human risk. Environ Int. 2018;114:131–42.
Fent K, Weston AA, Caminada D. Ecotoxicology of human pharmaceuticals. Aquat Toxicol. 2006;76:122–59.
Chaccour C, Hammann F, Rabinovich NR. Ivermectin to reduce malaria transmission I. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic considerations regarding efficacy and safety. Malar J. 2017;16:161.
Verdú JR, Lobo JM, Sánchez-Piñero F, Gallego B, Numa C, Lumaret J-P, et al. Ivermectin residues disrupt dung beetle diversity, soil properties and ecosystem functioning: An interdisciplinary field study. Sci Total Environ. 2018;618:219–28.
Jochmann R, Blanckenhorn WU. Non-target effects of ivermectin on trophic groups of the cow dung insect community replicated across an agricultural landscape. Basic Appl Ecol. 2016;17:291–9.
Wall R, Strong L. Environmental consequences of treating cattle with the antiparasitic drug ivermectin. Nature. 1987;327:418–21.
Nichols E, Spector S, Louzada J, Larsen T, Amezquita S, Favila ME. Ecological functions and ecosystem services provided by Scarabaeinae dung beetles. Biol Conserv. 2008;141:1461–74.
Verdú JR, Cortez V, Ortiz AJ, González-Rodríguez E, Martinez-Pinna J, Lumaret J-P, et al. Low doses of ivermectin cause sensory and locomotor disorders in dung beetles. Sci Rep. 2015;5:13912.
Singlas E. Clinical pharmacokinetics of azithromycin. Pathol Biol. 1995;43:505–11.
Kong FYS, Horner P, Unemo M, Hocking JS. Pharmacokinetic considerations regarding the treatment of bacterial sexually transmitted infections with azithromycin: a review. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2019;74:1157–66.
Mao Y, Yu Y, Ma Z, Li H, Yu W, Cao L, et al. Azithromycin induces dual effects on microalgae: Roles of photosynthetic damage and oxidative stress. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2021;222: 112496.
Fu L, Huang T, Wang S, Wang X, Su L, Li C, et al. Toxicity of 13 different antibiotics towards freshwater green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and their modes of action. Chemosphere. 2017;168:217–22.
Li Y, Ma Y, Yang L, Duan S, Zhou F, Chen J, et al. Effects of azithromycin on feeding behavior and nutrition accumulation of Daphnia magna under the different exposure pathways. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2020;197: 110573.
Mhadhbi L, El Ayari T, Tir M, Kadri D. Azithromycin effects on the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) early life stages following acute and chronic exposure: Laboratory bioassays. Drug Chem Toxicol. 2020;1–7.
Yan Z, Huang X, Xie Y, Song M, Zhu K, Ding S. Macrolides induce severe cardiotoxicity and developmental toxicity in zebrafish embryos. Sci Total Environ. 2019;649:1414–21.
Shiogiri NS, Ikefuti CV, Carraschi SP, da Cruz C, Fernandes MN. Effects of azithromycin on tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus): health status evaluation using biochemical, physiological and morphological biomarkers. Aquac Res. 2017;48:3669–83.
Liu S, Bekele T-G, Zhao H, Cai X, Chen J. Bioaccumulation and tissue distribution of antibiotics in wild marine fish from Laizhou Bay. North China Sci Total Environ. 2018;631–632:1398–405.
Alvarez-Muñoz D, Huerta B, Fernandez-Tejedor M, Rodríguez-Mozaz S, Barceló D. Multi-residue method for the analysis of pharmaceuticals and some of their metabolites in bivalves. Talanta. 2015;136:174–82.
Sidhu H, O’Connor G, Ogram A, Kumar K. Bioavailability of biosolids-borne ciprofloxacin and azithromycin to terrestrial organisms: Microbial toxicity and earthworm responses. Sci Total Environ. 2019;650:18–26.
Sidhu H, O’Connor G, Kruse J. Plant toxicity and accumulation of biosolids-borne ciprofloxacin and azithromycin. Sci Total Environ. 2019;648:1219–26.
Lau CH-F, Tien Y-C, Stedtfeld RD, Topp E. Impacts of multi-year field exposure of agricultural soil to macrolide antibiotics on the abundance of antibiotic resistance genes and selected mobile genetic elements. Sci Total Environ. 2020;727:138520.
Scott A, Tien Y-C, Drury CF, Reynolds WD, Topp E. Enrichment of antibiotic resistance genes in soil receiving composts derived from swine manure, yard wastes, or food wastes, and evidence for multiyear persistence of swine Clostridium spp. Can J Microbiol. 2018;64:201–8.
Smillie CS, Smith MB, Friedman J, Cordero OX, David LA, Alm EJ. Ecology drives a global network of gene exchange connecting the human microbiome. Nature. 2011;480:241–4.
Pehrsson EC, Tsukayama P, Patel S, Mejía-Bautista M, Sosa-Soto G, Navarrete KM, et al. Interconnected microbiomes and resistomes in low-income human habitats. Nature. 2016;533:212–6.
Yoon E-J, Goussard S, Touchon M, Krizova L, Cerqueira G, Murphy C, et al. Origin in Acinetobacter guillouiae and dissemination of the aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme Aph(3′)-VI. mBio. 5:e01972–14.
Martínez JL, Coque TM, Baquero F. What is a resistance gene? Ranking risk in resistomes. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2015;13:116–23.
Manaia CM. Assessing the Risk of Antibiotic Resistance Transmission from the Environment to Humans: Non-Direct Proportionality between Abundance and Risk. Trends Microbiol. 2017;25:173–81.
Nadimpalli ML, Marks SJ, Montealegre MC, Gilman RH, Pajuelo MJ, Saito M, et al. Urban informal settlements as hotspots of antimicrobial resistance and the need to curb environmental transmission. Nat Microbiol. 2020;5:787–95.
Buelow E, Rico A, Gaschet M, Lourenço J, Kennedy SP, Wiest L, et al. Hospital discharges in urban sanitation systems: Long-term monitoring of wastewater resistome and microbiota in relationship to their eco-exposome. Water Res X. 2020;7: 100045.
Lamba M, Gupta S, Shukla R, Graham DW, Sreekrishnan TR, Ahammad SZ. Carbapenem resistance exposures via wastewaters across New Delhi. Environ Int. 2018;119:302–8.
Koh TH, Ko K, Jureen R, Deepak RN, Tee NWS, Tan TY, et al. High counts of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in hospital sewage. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2015;36:619–21.
Ng C, Tay M, Tan B, Le T-H, Haller L, Chen H, et al. Characterization of Metagenomes in Urban Aquatic Compartments Reveals High Prevalence of Clinically Relevant Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Wastewaters. Front Microbiol. 2017;8:2200.
Lamba M, Graham DW, Ahammad SZ. Hospital Wastewater Releases of Carbapenem-Resistance Pathogens and Genes in Urban India. Environ Sci Technol. 2017;51:13906–12.
Divyashree M, Mani MK, Shama Prakash K, Vijaya Kumar D, Veena Shetty A, Shetty AK, et al. Hospital wastewater treatment reduces NDM-positive bacteria being discharged into water bodies. Water Environ Res. 2020;92:562–8.
Hendricks R, Pool EJ. The effectiveness of sewage treatment processes to remove faecal pathogens and antibiotic residues. J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng. 2012;47:289–97.
Rodriguez-Mozaz S, Vaz-Moreira I, Varela Della Giustina S, Llorca M, Barceló D, Schubert S, et al. Antibiotic residues in final effluents of European wastewater treatment plants and their impact on the aquatic environment. Environ Int. 2020;140:105733.
WHO, UNICEF, JMP. Progress on household drinking water, sanitation and hygiene: 2000 – 2020 [Internet]. World Health Organization; 2021 [cited 2022 Jan 31]. Available from: https://washdata.org/sites/default/files/2022-01/jmp-2021-wash-households_3.pdf
Willis LD, Chandler C. Quick fix for care, productivity, hygiene and inequality: reframing the entrenched problem of antibiotic overuse. BMJ Glob Health. BMJ Specialist Journals; 2019;4:e001590.
Araya P, Hug J, Joy G, Oschmann F, Rubinstein S. The impact of water and sanitation on diarrhoeal disease burde and over-consumption of antibiotics. [Internet]. [London, UK]: London School of Economics and Political Science; 2016. Available from: https://amr-review.org/sites/default/files/LSE%20AMR%20Capstone.pdf
Storr J, Kilpatrick C, Lee K. Time for a renewed focus on the role of cleaners in achieving safe health care in low- and middle-income countries. Antimicrob Resist Infect Control. 2021;10:59.
Maillard J-Y, Bloomfield SF, Courvalin P, Essack SY, Gandra S, Gerba CP, et al. Reducing antibiotic prescribing and addressing the global problem of antibiotic resistance by targeted hygiene in the home and everyday life settings: A position paper. Am J Infect Control. 2020;48:1090–9.
Mack I, Sharland M, Berkley JA, Klein N, Malhotra-Kumar S, Bielicki J. Antimicrobial resistance following azithromycin mass drug administration: Potential surveillance strategies to assess public health impact. Clin Infect Dis. 2020;70:1501–8.
CDC. National Wastewater Surveillance System [Internet]. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2022 [cited 2022 Jan 10]. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/surveillance/wastewater-surveillance/wastewater-surveillance.html
Årdal C, McAdams D, Wester AL, Møgedal S. Adapting environmental surveillance for polio to the need to track antimicrobial resistance. Bull World Health Organ. 2021;99:239–40.
Street R, Malema S, Mahlangeni N, Mathee A. Wastewater surveillance for Covid-19: An African perspective. Sci Total Environ. 2020;743: 140719.
World Health Organization. WHO integrated global surveillance on ESBL-producing E. coli using a “One Health” approach. Implementation and opportunities [Internet]. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2021 Mar p. 76. Available from: https://www.who.int/publications-detail-redirect/who-integrated-global-surveillance-on-esbl-producing-e.-coli-using-a-one-health-approach
Banu RA, Alvarez JM, Reid AJ, Enbiale W, Labi A-K, Ansa EDO, et al. Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Escherichia coli in river waters collected from two cities in ghana, 2018–2020. Trop Med Infect Dis. 2021;6:105.
Matheson AI, Manhart LE, Pavlinac PB, Means AR, Akullian A, Levine GA, et al. Prioritizing countries for interventions to reduce cild mortality: Tools for maximizing the impact of Mass Drug Administration of azithromycin. PLoS ONE. 2014;9: e96658.
Bengtsson-Palme J, Larsson DGJ. Concentrations of antibiotics predicted to select for resistant bacteria: Proposed limits for environmental regulation. Environ Int. 2016;86:140–9.